human trafficking, EU Trafficking Directive
The problem of trafficking in human beings (THB) is still omnipresent in Europe, despite
the numerous preventive and retributive actions taken. Th is article evaluates the two most
important EU-instruments to combat trafficking: the EU Directive and the EU Strategy.
Based on secondary analysis of reports, policy reviews and scholarly writings from
organisations, EU institutions and academics, key challenges in combating human
trafficking are identified and an evaluation of the extent to which these instruments have
addressed these challenges is made. Th e key challenges are subdivided following the three-P
paradigm (prosecution, protection and prevention) and are the following: defining THB,
non-punishment, low number of persons convicted of THB, corporate liability, identification
of THB and victims of THB, conditional protection, prevention and neglect of vulnerable
groups. In addition a multi-disciplinary approach and the current migration fl ow were
identified as key challenges and the two instruments are also evaluated on these aspects.