Journal article

Publication details

Inclusion before Exclusion or Vice Versa: What the Qualification Directive and the Court of Justice Do (Not) Say
in journal: International journal of refugee law, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013

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Release year: 2013
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Author(s) details

David Kosar

Publication description

exclusion clause, geneva convention, Refugee, asylum, acquis, qualification, procedures
The question whether the assessment of the inclusion clause must precede the application of the exclusion clauses under the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (CSR51) is a recurring theme in many jurisdictions. This article shows that the jurisprudence of the top national courts shifted decisively in favour of the ‘exclusion before inclusion’ position. Subsequently, this article looks for guidance at the Qualification and Procedures Directives. It claims that although it is generally assumed that the European Asylum Acquis left this issue untouched, it endorses the ‘exclusion before inclusion’ position and it does so even more overtly than the CSR51. However, this article also puts forth the argument that the Qualification Directive taken in conjunction with the Procedures Directive creates an obligation for the EU Member States that goes beyond the CSR51, namely to address inclusion in the interview with the applicant even in cases when the refugee adjudicators plan to apply the exclusion clause.